Sensorimotor Pathway

This pathway is for Occupational Therapy Staff working with children/young people with sensorimotor difficulties which impact on their everyday life. It gives an overview of current best practice with this population and describes the possible journey of children/young people through the Occupational Therapy service

Click on the sections below for quick access to each area or scroll down the page to see all the content.

Sensorimotor Pathway

Population and Pathways

What type of child/young person would it be appropriate to see within this pathway?

Any child/young person between the ages of 3 and 18 years who is understood to have an issue with sensorimotor difficulties which impact on their daily life and affect their performance in the occupational roles expected of them.  This can be children/young people with:

  • Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)
  • Dyspraxia
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Developmental delay
  • Children with a dual diagnosis of these conditions
  • Children without a diagnosis but who are having difficulties coping with the sensory information around them, difficulties with motor skills and/or motor organisation/motor planning.

What type of child/young person would it not be appropriate, in the most part, to see within this pathway?

How would this child/young person and their families access the Occupational Therapy Service?

These children and young people would mainly come to the Occupational Therapy service through uni-professional referral form from Parents/Carers, Education, and other professionals.  They can come through other pathways such as the Disability Pathway or the Vulnerability Pathway (Looked After and Accommodated Children (LAAC)).

Current Best Practice

As Occupational Therapists many of our core skills benefit this population of children. This includes the use of teaching-learning approaches, grading, changing or adapting the task or environment and finding the “just right challenge” that is suited to the child.

Recent studies question the success of more traditional approaches which focus on deficits in performance components (this is sometimes described as a “bottom up “approach) in terms of this transferring into actual performance task or goal. Treatment planning that includes this approach should always ensure it relates to the tasks a child is expected to be able to do. Best practice guides the therapist to ensure that interventions are around a task performance and that the interaction between the person, the environment and the task is acknowledged. This has led to the development of “top down “theories such as the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (COOP) approach to learn skills to manage the everyday activities that are important to the child.

Sections in this booklet are divided into age ranges to acknowledge evidence that certain approaches are more effective with certain age groups. There remains a need to identify underlying deficits, or stage a child is performing at, and to help children achieve developmental stages of play and performance in the early years. Bottom up or process-oriented approaches are less effective for the older children within this population and intervention should be guided by this with emphasis being on a COOP or top down type theory.

Occupational Therapy works with children with significant sensory modulation difficulties that are impacting on their occupational performance. Current best practice suggest skilling up the adults around the child /young person to understand their sensory preferences and to look at adapting the environment. Specific techniques that benefit these children include sensory stories as a tool to increase children’s participation in typical events, the use of teaching with an emphasis on visuals e.g. dressing routine in pictures rather than text, and graded exposure. Most scholars recommend use of sensory based interventions as one component of a comprehensive intervention that uses a variety of methods to promote performance. There is not enough evidence to validate use of Sensory Integration Intervention for this population at present. (See SI Practice Briefing COT April 2015 - Available to Royal College of Occupational Therapists (RCOT) members only).

Staged Journey of Care

National Drivers such as Ready to Act and “Guan Yersel!” The Self-Management Strategy for Long Term Conditions in Scotland advocate for the use of a tiered model of service delivery as well as supporting those with long term conditions to self-manage their conditions.  As such the focus for this population is on developing self-management skills as these types of conditions are life-long and it is essential to empower parents/carers with the skills they need to support their child into adulthood.   We want families to be able to access services at a targeted level and then if required to access specialist services for specific support before returning to a universal or targeted level.

The flowchart below demonstrates how children with sensorimotor difficulties can access different levels of care dependent on their unique story.

Universal and Targeted Level

The messages we want to ensure reach all families and professionals working with children with a sensorimotor difficulty are:

  • It is important to involve children in play and self-care as early as possible.
  • Participation and practice in play/leisure, self-care and education are essential for wellbeing and can support skill development.
  • Appropriate positioning for play/leisure, education and self-care skills can support development.

Resources available at a Universal level that can be accessed by families of children with a sensorimotor difficulty include:

Ready Steady Baby and Ready Steady Toddler are booklets supplied by Midwives and Health Visitors.

 

Ready Steady Baby will help you get ready for parenthood by taking you through the whole of your pregnancy - from the decision to start trying for a baby, through the antenatal care you will receive and on to advice on labour and birth. It offers advice on maternity leave and benefits and tips on caring for your baby for the first year.  The comprehensive guide is for mums, dads, partners, civil partners and other primary care givers who all have a very important role to play in the care and upbringing of your baby.

  

Ready Steady Toddler explores a hands-on guide to help you through the challenges and rewards of the toddler years.

 

 

 

 

 

 

[email protected] (Baby, Toddler and Pre-school) books are supplied by Health Visitors.

Play, Talk, Read is a website with easy, fun ways to help your child be happier, learn more and enjoy a better start in life. 

Read Write Count is a website where parents and carers can find ways to help their children learn vital life skills like reading, writing and counting.

Bookbug support families so that from birth, stories and songs are used to build attachment, support speech and language development and lay the foundations of literacy. This is the first step in helping every child in Scotland to develop a love of books and reading.

Play Scotland works to promote the importance of play for all children and young people, and campaigns to create increased play opportunities in the community.

 

Parentzone Scotland - Education Scotland is the national body in Scotland for supporting quality and improvement in learning and teaching.

Parenting Across Scotland is a partnership of charities which offers support to children and families in Scotland.  They work together to focus on parenting issues and to help realise their vision..."A Scotland where all parents and families are valued and supported to give children the best possible start in life.

 

Resources available at a Targeted level that can be accessed by families of and professionals working with children with a developmental impairment or learning disability include:

  • KIDS Scotland Platform

Other useful links include

  • #

Specialist Level

Introduction

Specialist input may be required to support families/teams around the child in the early stages to identify realistic goals, access relevant information and develop strategies specific to the child with the aim of empowering the family/team around the child to support self-management.

Families/teams around the child may also receive specialist input if they have tried available targeted input and the child/young person is not making progress towards their goals. Specialist input may also be required if adaptive equipment is necessary to enhance participation.

Specialist level input can be recommended at the initial First Contact session. Here the role of Occupational Therapy is explained, family commitment is established and the pathway for this population is described along with reasons why specific forms of specialist intervention have been recommended. Goals around occupational performance for the child and family can be set with the Occupational Therapist at first contact or by the Occupational Therapist allocated to the family.

Specialist intervention can include diagnosis, assessment and treatment.  It can also include directing families to targeted work such as the KIDS Website, Parent Workshop or signposting them to other services.

Treatment planning must be collaborative and consider the best environment to work on the goals so that it transferable into all environments the child participates in.  It must ensure that it has included skilling up those closest to the child to enable them to understand the child’s strengths, the way they learn new tasks and be confident in explaining this to others. It also has to include signposting families to resources and local services (e.g. local sports clubs or groups) to encourage participation in the community.

Assessment

Assessment can be used at different stages of a child/young persons journey as needed.  It can be indicated at First Contact to help inform intervention.  Assessment can also be used during treatment as deemed necessary by the named Occupational Therapist or as part of a diagnostic process.

Assessment can include the use of standardised assessment tools to explore underlying difficulties and guide intervention. It can also include non-standardised assessments; information gathering and environmental observations at home and or school.  Assessment can be carried out by the Occupational Therapist independently or with other multi-disciplinary team members such as Physiotherapy.  When choosing whether to assess and what assessment tools to use, the Occupational Therapist should consider what types of assessment would suit this child considering the child/young persons age and ability to conform to assessment protocols.  Weight should not be given to one type of assessment over another.  Standardised assessment, non standardised assessment and observations all carry the same weight and should be used together as part of robust clinical reasoning.

Assessment Options

Assessment for this population can include:

  • Participation focused assessment:
    • Participation and Environment Measure
    • Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory
  • Occupation focused assessments:
    • Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM)
    • Perceived Efficiency Goal Setting (PEGS)
    • COSA - Child Occupational Self-Assessment
  • Performance Component focused assessments:
    • Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (Movement ABC 2)
    • Beery-Buktenica Development Test of Visual Motor Integration (Beery VMI)
    • Test of Visual Perceptual Skills (TVPS)
    • Detailed Assessment of Speed of Handwriting (DASH)
    • Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA)
  • Sensory Assessment:
    • Sensory Questionnaires on KIDS website  - 
      The sensory questionnaires are a non standardised tool for ages 2-5 years, 5-12 years and 12-18 years.

Intervention

Best practice differs for children/young people with sensory motor difficulties given their age.  Below you will find best practice for each age group.

Early Years and Nursery Age Children

In the early years (under 3) this populations’ needs are likely to be met within the Developmental Impairment/Learning Disability pathway. 
As such this section's focus is on ante and pre-school years.

Typical Referrals

Referrals at this stage are often focused on independence/self-care skills, self-feeding and play development requiring more advanced gross and fine motor skills as well as readiness for school and transition planning. 

Assessment

Non standardised assessment, observations and knowledge of child development are used here. Consideration is also made of child’s early development e.g. prematurity. 

Standardised motor based performance assessments can be used from 4 years upwards. Consideration should be given to the child’s ability to concentrate and perform at this age. 

Assessment for sensory difficulties is usually completed by family/nursery report using the Sensory Questionnaire.  It is also important to consider the child’s strengths, difficulties and the impact of behaviour at home/in the nursery environment.  Use of a standardised assessment such as sensory processing measure (pre 5) or sensory profile (infant/toddler, 3-5 years) could be considered if the therapist is requiring a more in depth assessment of the child’s sensory processing difficulties at home and/or nursery to ensure a full objective view of the child’s sensory difficulties is achieved.

Interventions & Care Plan

Interventions will be goal focused and the care plan could include:

  • Activity advice and strategies around performance expected at this age level and how to develop underlying skills and everyday tasks expected of the child.
  • Techniques taught to parents e.g. backward chaining and grading.
  • Sensory advice in relation to child’s environment and ‘best fit’ for the child to help with engagement in age appropriate activities.
  • Equipment advice may be given to nursery along with appropriate level activity advice.
  • Occupational Therapy Technical Instructor (OT TI) can work in nursery and/or with parents to support and coach those closest to the child.
  • In preschool and transition to primary, groups can be offered such as Happy Hands, Seaside Adventure where readiness for school is the main reason for intervention along with practising tasks expected of a Primary 1 child.

Discharge and Red Flags for Re-referral

Following intervention the child is reviewed to gauge progress towards goals. This is done through discussion with family/nursery to establish and evidence if goals and outcomes have been met. Coaching parents to have the knowledge and confidence to understand and explain their child’s strengths and difficulties is an essential component for discharge from the service.

Red Flags for Re-referral or discussion with Occupational Therapy:

  • Transition to primary has raised concerns around areas of self-care , academic learning and play skills which have not improved over settling in period and are felt to require an Occupational Therapist opinion.
  • Targeted resources have been tried without progress.

 

Primary Years (5-9 Years old)

Typical Referrals

In primary school for children aged 5-8 years the focus is often more on specific skills required for school e.g. handwriting, independence skills, motor skills to support participation in PE, attention and organisation.  Also independence with self-care skills at home and in the community. 

Non standardised assessment, observations and knowledge of child development are used here. Consideration is also made of child’s early development e.g. prematurity.  Standardised motor based performance assessments can be used from 4 years upwards. Consideration should be given to the child’s ability to concentrate and perform at this age and assessment is usually more useful through play.

Assessment

Non standardised assessment, sensory checklists, observations and knowledge of child development are options here. Standardised assessments can be used.  Standardised motor based performance assessments can be also be used from 4 years upwards.  Consideration should be given to the child’s ability to concentrate and perform during standardised assessments at this age. Consideration is also made of child’s early development.

Interventions & Care Plan

Interventions will be goal focused and the care plan could include:

  • Activity advice and strategies around performance expected at this age level and how to develop underlying skills and everyday tasks expected of the child.
  • Techniques taught to parents e.g. backward chaining and advice around level of performance for the child at that time so that a graded approach is being used.
  • Sensory advice in relation to child’s environment and ‘best fit’ for the child to help with engagement in age appropriate activities.
  • Equipment advice may be given to school along with appropriate level activity advice.
  • Occupational Therapy Technical Instructor (OT TI) can work in school and/or with parents to support and coach those closest to the child.
  • In pre-school and transition to primary, groups can be offered such as Happy Hands, Seaside Adventure where readiness for school is the main reason for intervention along with practising tasks expected of a Primary 1 child.
  • Targeted advice.

Current interventions within GG&C Occupational Therapy service for this age group includes:

  • Rainbow Gym - Held after school in local leisure and community centres. Rainbow Gym is made up of specific activity stations and is staffed by Occupational Therapy or Occupational Therapy & Physiotherapy staff.  This intervention is devised by Occupational Therapists for primary school aged children. Rainbow Gym targets motor skills for the everyday tasks children need to do.  Includes a top down approach targeting occupational performance areas. Runs weekly after school where parent/career is the coach and family work through a progressive programme of motor activities and functional tasks.
  • Using a COOP approach - Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is a therapeutic treatment approach for people (children and adults) who have difficulties performing everyday skills. The approach can be used in 1:1 or group employing collaborative goal setting, dynamic performance analysis, cognitive strategy use, enabling principles and guided discovery to promote skill acquisition, generalisation and transfer.  Several Specialist Children Services (SCS) Occupational Therapists have been on COOP training as well as in-house training being given to staff as a whole. A cohort of Occupational Therapists exists in the service who will support individual therapists in using this approach.
  • Handwriting Approaches/Programmes - This includes assessment of pre-requisites for handwriting in order to advise home and school expected handwriting performance, assessment of handwriting and provision of strategies/alternatives. Recommendation of adaptive equipment such as slope boards , movin'sit cushions and pencil grips.  Use of handwriting programmes such as Speed Up and Right from the Start.
  • The Alert Program© - To help children self-regulate through learning about themselves through monitoring the signals that indicate an internal level of being ready to participate (using a car engine analogy and 3 engine speeds: too fast, just right & too slow) in order to engage in everyday activities at home, school, community and leisure. This is achieved through teaching the child sensorimotor strategies.  Specific activities that can be used individually or in group setting. The programme consists of lessons and activities that incorporate sensory integration techniques with cognitive approaches. Children can enter an individual Alert programme at an appropriate level for their age and state of development. Children are taught an engine analogy and ways to change engine speeds.  The programme may need to be adapted to be at correct ‘dosage’ level for the child’s age and cognitive ability.  For example a child with Autism who is verbal and interactive i.e. with Asperger’s Syndrome can choose what analogy they would like to use from their special interest e.g. erupting volcano, dormant volcano, extinct volcano .Whatever descriptors which have meaning for the child can be used. Progress is monitored and the child may participate in a group Alert programme depending on their occupational goal. An Alert programme can be run for parents and teachers in order to coach alert techniques and to use strategies to help their child, pupil to self-regulate.

Discharge and Red Flags for Re-referral

Following intervention child is reviewed to gauge progress of goals. This is done through discussion with family and outcomes in goal plan sheet being met and evidenced through outcome measures. Coaching parents to have the knowledge and confidence to understand and explain their child’s strengths and difficulties is an essential component for discharge from the service.

Red Flags for Re-referral or discussion with Occupational Therapy:

  • Transition stages within primary e.g. in P4 handwriting workload can increase, raised concerns around areas of self-care, academic learning and play skills which have not improved and are felt to require an Occupational Therapist opinion.
  • Targeted resources have been tried without progress.

Targeted Advice/Resources

  • KIDS Website - school activity pack for home and school, classroom strategies, pencil skills & recording your work section. School age sensory questionnaire with resources, top tips sensory booklet.
  • Parent workshop
  • Directing family to existing school programs such as Movement Matters, Fizzy Programme, and Brain Gym. School handwriting programmes such as Speed Up and Write from the start.
  • Classroom strategies such as use of social stories and visual strategies in the classroom.
  • Henrys OT Tools Tool Box for Parents and Teachers
  • Publications 
    • 100 ideas for supporting pupils with Dyspraxia and DCD Amanda Kirby
    • Developmental Coordination Disorder: Hints and Tips for the Activities of Daily Living by Morven F Ball
    • Asperger Syndrome and Sensory Issues: Practical Solutions for Making Sense of the World Brenda Smith Myles, Katherine Tapscott Cook, Nancy E Miller

Primary Years (9-11 Years old)

Typical Referrals

As children move through primary school referrals can be more goal orientated around hobbies and leisure activities, coping with increased school work and demands .Self-esteem and behavioural issues can emerge with avoidance of certain activities causing concerns, e.g. PE, handwriting. At this stage the focus also moves to readiness for transition to secondary school.  

Assessment

Non standardised assessment, sensory checklist, observations and knowledge of child development are used here. Standardised assessments can be used.  Standardised motor based performance assessments can be also be used from 4 years upwards. Consideration is also made of child’s early development.

Interventions & Care Plan

As this age group is more mature then cognitive based approaches such as COOP and Alert can be beneficial. A top down approach also becomes more significant as emphasis is on achieving the task rather than working on pre-requisites skills. 
Interventions continue to be goal focused and the care plan could include:

  • Activity advice and strategies around performance expected at this age level and how to develop underlying skills and everyday tasks expected of the child.
  • Techniques taught to parent e.g. backward chaining and advice around level of performance for the child at that time so that a graded approach is being used.
  • Equipment advice may be given to school along with appropriate level activity advice.
  • OT TI can work in school and home to support and coach those closest to the child.
  • Targeted advice.

Current common interventions within Occupational Therapy service for this age group continues to include

  • Rainbow Gym
  • COOP approach
  • Alert programme
  • Handwriting programmes
  • Advice and strategies

Appropriately for this group, intervention can include transition groups or Life Skills: Life Skills groups run to assist in the practical transition from primary to secondary school by providing greater insight, strategies and coping methods. Areas covered include budgeting, time management, directions, organisational skills and kitchen skills. Transition pack given to home. School liaison is usually offered into secondary to review.

Discharge and Red Flags for Re-referral

Following intervention child is reviewed to gauge progress of goals. This is done through discussion with family and outcomes in goal plan sheet being met and evidenced. Coaching the parent and also at this age the child to have the knowledge and confidence to explain their strengths and difficulties is an essential component for discharge.

Red Flags for re-referral or discussion with Occupational Therapy:

  • Transition to secondary has raised concerns around taking part in self-care , academic learning and play skills which have not improved over settling in period and are felt to require an Occupational Therapist opinion.
  • Targeted resources have been tried without progress.

Targeted Advice/Resources

  • KIDS Website - school activity pack for home and school, classroom strategies, pencil skills & recording your work section and life skills resources including transition packs.
  • Parent workshop
  • Directing family to existing school programs such as Movement Matters, Fizzy Programme, and Brain Gym. School handwriting programmes such as Speed Up and Write from the Start.
  • Classroom strategies such as use of social stories and visual strategies in the classroom.
  • Top Tips Sensory Tips for older children.
  • Enquire leaflets on getting extra help, moving to secondary school, moving to a new school.
  • Henrys OT Tools Tool Box for Parents and Teachers.
  • Sensory Behaviour booklet Sensory adolescent questionnaire.
  • Publications 
    • 100 ideas for supporting pupils with Dyspraxia and DCD Amanda Kirby
    • Developmental Coordination Disorder: Hints and Tips for the Activities of Daily Living by Morven F Ball
    • Asperger Syndrome and Sensory Issues: Practical Solutions for Making Sense of the World Brenda Smith Myles, Katherine Tapscott Cook, Nancy E Miller

Secondary School Age

Typical Referrals

During secondary school years the focus is generally around school activities: handwriting/recording work/exams, organisation, independence skills and accessing practical subject’s. As well as independence within the home and community environment. 

Assessment

Non-standardised assessment, sensory checklist, observations and knowledge of child development are used here. Standardised assessments can be used.

Interventions & Care Plan

As this age group is more mature then more cognitive based approaches such as COOP can be beneficial. A top down approach also becomes more significant as emphasis is on achieving the task rather than working on pre-requisites skills that are less achievable at this age. An adaptation and strategy based approach is beneficial. Equipment advice and strategies may be given to school. Close liaison with pastoral care and pupil support is vital due to the nature of secondary school education. Occupational Therapy can advise parents to support and coach those closest to the young person. Targeted advice can be explored with the young person.

Discharge and Red Flags for Re-referral

Following intervention child is reviewed to gauge progress of goals. This is done through discussion with family and outcomes in goal plan sheet being met and evidenced. Coaching the parent and also at this age the child to have the knowledge and confidence to explain their strengths and difficulties is an essential component for discharge.

Red Flags for re-referral or discussion with Occupational Therapy:

  • Transition to secondary has raised concerns around areas of taking part in self-care, academic learning and play skills which have not improved over settling in period and are felt to require an Occupational Therapist opinion.
  • Targeted resources have been tried without progress.

Targeted Advice/Resources

  • KIDS Website - Strategies for the older pupil pack, Classroom strategies, Recording Your Work, Sensory Checklist for teens. 
  • Parent workshop
  • Enquire leaflets on getting extra help, moving to secondary school and moving to a new school.
  • Henrys OT Tools Tool Box for teenagers.
  • Life Skills for teenagers.
  • 'Sensory Top Tips' for teenagers.
  • Box of Ideas.
  • Publications 
    • DCD and the Adolescent by Amanda Kirby.

Further Education/Employment Age

Typical Referrals

As the young person prepares to leave secondary, referrals can be with regard to managing in further education, move into employment and apprentices and the focus is around recording work and exams, independence skills and more adult hobbies e.g. learning to drive.

Assessment

Non standardised assessment, observations, sensory checklist, standardised motor based performance assessment and work place/college assessment.

Interventions & Care Plan

As this age group is more mature then more cognitive based approaches such as COOP are advised.  A top down approach also becomes more significant as emphasis is on achieving the task.  An adaptation and strategy based approach is beneficial.  Equipment advice and strategies may be given to school and college/workplace.  Targeted advice can be explored with the young person.  OT can advise parents to support and coach those closest to the young person.

Discharge and Red Flags for Re-referral

Following intervention the young person is reviewed to gauge progress of goals. This is done through discussion with the young person and their family and outcomes in goal plan sheet being met and evidenced.  Information on adult resources, advocacy projects and services as they may be too old for re-referral in future. Coaching the parent and also at this age the young person to have the knowledge and confidence to explain their strengths and difficulties is an essential component for discharge.

Red Flags for re-referral or discussion with Occupational Therapy:

  • End of secondary has raised concerns around areas of taking part in self-care, academic learning and play skills which have not improved and are felt to require an Occupational Therapist opinion.
  • Targeted resources have been tried without progress.

Targeted Advice/Resources

  • KIDS Website - Strategies for the older pupil pack, Classroom strategies, Recording Your Work, Sensory Checklist for adolescents. 
  • Parent workshop.
  • Enquire leaflets on getting extra help, moving onto further education.
  • Henrys OT Tools Tool Box for teenagers.
  • 'Sensory Top Tips' for teenagers.
  • Box of Ideas website.
  • Publications 
    • DCD and the Adolescent by Amanda Kirby.

Diagnosis: Development Coordination Disorder or DCD

Currently the request for Development Coordination Disorder (DCD) diagnosis can be responded to in a variety of ways.  This strand of the sensorimotor pathway will be further developed and expanded upon in 2017 to consider best practice and guidelines.

Typical Referrals

Referrals requesting to confirm if a child has dyspraxia or a direct request for a diagnosis of DCD.

Best Practice

It is beneficial to explain the difference in terminology to parents: dyspraxia is a symptom, a difficulty with motor planning and not all children with DCD have dyspraxia, DCD is the diagnostic and umbrella term and is the term used within the DSM- the Diagnostic and Statistical manual for Mental Disorders, Version 5. Explanation should also be given that pursuit of a diagnostic will not affect OT intervention as this is always based on performance tasks and child’s goals and is unrelated to diagnosis. The diagnostic process itself can be lengthy as it requires Occupational Therapy, Medical and Education opinions. Pursuit of a diagnosis can run alongside intervention and should not delay intervention.

For a diagnosis of DCD, occupational performance needs to be affected. It is a collaborative process between the family, OT, Medical Staff and Education.  Royal College of Occupational Therapy (RCOT) have published guidelines on the role of Occupational Therapy within a DCD diagnosis process. OT role lies within the Criteria A & B of the DSM5 diagnosis criteria.

Assessments of functional skills as well as underlying difficulties includes

  • Using standardised assessments such as Movement ABC2, VMI , TVPS
  • Taking a comprehensive developmental history
  • Non- standardised observations and gathering of information through interview and parent and school questionnaires.

Education opinion can be sought through educational psychology or school team who know child’s academic performance and level.  Medical opinion can be sought via GP or Paediatrician to rule out any underlying neurological or other condition.

Review

Following assessment an opinion is given through a collaborative process.  Diagnosis does not address an individual’s specific needs and so this route can run in tandem with other sensorimotor pathway interventions to work on specific goals. Following intervention the child or young person is reviewed to gauge progress of goals.  This is done through discussion with the child/young person and their family and outcomes in goal plan sheet being met and evidenced. Targeted advice is given. Coaching the parent and also at this age the young person to have the knowledge and confidence to explain their diagnosis as well as their strengths and difficulties is an essential component for discharge

Targeted Advice/Resources

  • KIDS Website - Information on DCD, practical tips, and websites.
  • COT guidelines on OT role within diagnosis, COT DCD Fact sheet.
  • Can Child DCD Fact sheet.

Diagnosis: ASD

A child or young person will receive a diagnosis of ASD through the ASD diagnostic multidisciplinary pathway.

 

Targeted Advice/Resources

Websites

  • Paving the Way - This website offers early intervention for children with learning disabilities whose behaviours challenge.
  • The National Autistic Society - This website offers general information and advice for families and children with ASD.
  • The National Autistic Society - This website offers sensory information and strategies for families and children with ASD.
  • Autism Toolbox - This website has online resources for Scottish schools - includes sensory and visual strategies.
  • Sensory Integration Education - This website on the Sensory Integration (SI) Network provides up to date information and news about the developments in Sensory Integration theory, practice and research.
  • Falkirk Council - This website has downloadable OT booklets for this population.
  • Sensory Stories - This website gives access to a web application for information on social stories.
  • Dyspraxia Foundation - This Foundation and charity offers support and advice to families affected by dyspraxia.
  • Box of Ideas - This website has strategies and advice for children with DCD, dyspraxia and sensory motor difficulties.
  • Enquire - This website has a helpline for advice and information about additional support for learning.
  • Canchild - This is a Canadian website with information on conditions as well as advice around increasing physical activity.
  • Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy (University of Toronto) - This website has information on the Cognitive Orientation to Occupational Performance approach.
  • Royal College of Occupational Therapy (RCOT) - This website has guidelines and briefings on DCD.

Apps

  • Sorted (iSO App only) - This is a free app for day to day organiser for people with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or anyone wishing to be more organised.
  • ADHD Guardian Angel (iOS App only) - This is a free app designed to help day to day life of someone with ADHD.
  • Choiceworks (iOS App only) - This app (purchase only) is a learning tool for helping children complete daily routines (morning, day & night), understand & control their feelings and improve their waiting skills (i.e. taking turns and not interrupting).