Anti-AQP4 and Anti-MOG Antibody Testing (NMO Testing)
Antibodies against the aquaporin 4 (AQP4) channel are the commonest detected autoantibody in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Up to 80% of NMOSD patients have these antibodies. They are also found in up to 50% of patients with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) who do not otherwise meet the NMOSD criteria. We test for these antibodies in serum using a commercial cell-based assay. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5013123/
Antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are seen in a large proportion of patients with NMOSD who do not have detectable anti-AQP4 antibodies. The clinical phenotype in anti-MOG antibody-associated disease is a wide spectrum that includes classic NMO, isolated optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, focal cortical encephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). We test for these antibodies in serum using a commercial cell-based assay. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30559466/
Both these antibodies are tested for in parallel in our cell-based assay and so a request for either antibody will generate a report for both. We perform the test on serum. We have not validated the assay on CSF.