Creutzfeldt Jacob Disease (CJD)
Caused by unconventional agents thought to be infectious proteins - known as prions. Disease in humans are:
Sporadic - classical
Familial - including Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS)
Acquired - iatrogenic, variant.
There is evidence that these disorders can be transmitted in specific situations associated with medical interventions, e.g. transfusion of contaminated blood and blood products, surgery with contaminated instruments. During routine clinical care, Standard Precautions are sufficient to prevent cross-infection in healthcare settings. Transmission Based Precautions must be applied when operations or specific invasive procedures are to be undertaken on high-risk tissues or patients identified as being at risk of vCJD.
Guidance from the ACDP TSE Risk Management Subgroup (formerly TSE Working Group) is the most-up-to date guidance on this topic, provided by the Department of Health.
See also the NHSGCC CJD SOP.